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Dad Prep

Responsibility begins before conception.

While prospective fathers do not experience the body changes and sometimes the discomfort or more serious medical complications of pregnancy, they do have an important role to play.  Researchers have found that fathers or male partners that were understanding, available and willing to learn about the pregnancy process provided the best emotional and physical support for their female partners.


Men can also help to ensure a healthy pregnancy by taking care of their own health prior to conception.  It is well known that heavy alcohol and tobacco use, as well as drug use can affect fertility, but exposure to toxic chemicals at work or at home can hurt the reproductive systems of men as well.  If you and your female partner are considering having a baby, it would be prudent to avoid toxic chemical exposures by wearing protective clothing or a mask or finding a least toxic alternative.  


Non-ionizing radiofrequency (RF) radiation exposure from wireless devices has also come under scrutiny as the use of technology has become almost ubiquitous in our society.  It is generally accepted that proximity to a transmitting and receiving device, like a cell phone, presents the greatest risk for harm.  Men carrying their phones in their front pant’s pockets is very common today, as is holding a wireless laptop or tablet directly on their reproductive organs. Multiple studies show that the use of cell phones by men is associated with a decrease in their semen quality, including decrease in sperm count, motility and viability.


But there is good news!  Turning off your phone or placing it in airplane mode (which is almost radiation free, but the electrical components of the cellphone will still emit small amounts of radiation) before putting in into your pocket is, of course, the easiest thing to do. And several manufacturers are offering protective phone cases that shield RF radiation. You can also look for silver-lined underwear!  Cotton fabric is interwoven with threads of silver, which is the metal most commonly used to shield against radiation.

Lastly, RF waves may not be the only threat your cellphone poses to sperm.  It is a fact that the slightest increase in scrotal temperature can reduce sperm production, and anything that raises the temperature, like working with a laptop on your lap or having an activated cellphone in your front pocket, can reduce sperm viability and motility.  Keep cool! 

  1. Long-Term Exposure to 4G Smartphone Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation Diminished Male Reproductive Portential by Directly Disrupting Spck3-MMP2-BTB Axis in the Testes of Adult Rats. Yu, G., et al. Science of The Total Environment 698 (2020).

  2. Radiations and Male Fertility. Kesari, K., Agarwal, A. and Henkel, R. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 16(118) (2018).

  3. The Effect of 2.45 GHz Non-Ionizing Radiation on the Structure and Ultrastructure of The Testis in Juvenile Rats. Šimaiová, V., et al. Histology and Histopathology 34(4):391-403 (2018).

  4. Modulatory Effect of 900 MHz Radiation on Biochemical and Reproductive Parameters in Rats. Narayanan, SN., et al. Bratislava Medical Journal 119(9):581-587 (2018).

  5. Aloe Arborescens Juice Prevents EMF-Induced Oxidative Stress and Thus Protects from Pathophysiology in the Male Reproductive System In Vitro. Solek, P., Majchrowics, L., and Koziorowski, M. Environmental Research 166:141-149 (2018).

  6. Effects of Electromagnetic Waves Emitted from 3G+ Wi-Fi Modems on Human Semen Analysis. Kamali, K., et al. Urologia 14.0 (2017). 

  7. The Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation on Sperm Function. Houston, Nixon, et al. Reproduction 152(6):263-276 (2016).

  8. Male Fertility and its Association with Occupational and Mobile Phone Tower Hazards: An Analytical Study. Al-Quzwini, Al-Taee, et al. Middle East Fertility Society Journal (2016).

  9. Sperm DNA Damage – The Effect of Stress and Everyday Life Factors. Radwan, M., et al. International Journal of Impotence Research 28(4):148-154 (2016).

  10. Electromagnetic Radiation at 900 MHz Induces Sperm Apoptosis through bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 Signaling Pathways in Rats. Liu, Si, et al. Journal of Reproductive Health 12:65 (2015).

  11. Habits of Cell Phone usage and Sperm Quality - Does It Warrant Attention? Zilverlight, Wiener-Megnazi, et al. Reproductive BioMedicine Online 31(3):421-426 (2015).

  12. 2.45 GHz Microwave Irradiation Adversely Affects Reproductive Function in Male Mouse, Mus musculus by Inducing Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress. Shahin, S., et al. Free Radical Research 48(5): 511-525 (2014). 

  13. Effect of Mobile Telephones on Sperm Quality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Adams, J., et al. Environment International 80: 106:112 (2014).

  14. Extremely Low frequency Magnetic Fields Induce Spermatogenic Germ Cell Apoptosis: Possible Mechanism. Lee, Park, et al. BioMed Research International 2014(2014): 567183 (2014).

  15. In Vitro Effect of Cell Phone Radiation on Motility, DNA Fragmentation and Clusterin Gene Expression in Human Sperm. Zalata, El-Samanoudy, et al. International Journal of Fertility and Sterility 9(1):129-136 (2014).

  16. The Effects of Cell Phone Waves (900 MHz-GSM Band) on Sperm Parameters and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Rats. Ghanbari, M. International Journal of Fertility and Sterility 7(1), 21-8 (2013).

  17. Immunohistopathologic Demonstration of Deleterious Effects on Growing Rat Testes of Radiofrequency Waves Emitted from Conventional Wi-Fi Devices. Atasoy, H., et al. Journal of Pediatric Urology. 9(2):223-229 (2013).

  18. Effect of Electromagnetic Field Exposure on the Reproductive System. Gye and Park. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine 39(1):1-19 (2012).

  19. Effects of the Exposure of Mobile Phones on Male Reproduction: A Review of the Literature. Vignera, Condorelli, et al. Journal of Andrology 33(3):350-356 (2012).

  20. Use of Laptop Computers Connected to Internet Trhough Wi-Fi Decreases Human Sperm Motility and Increases Sperm DNA Fragmentation. Avendano, C., et al. Fertility and Sterility 97(1):39-45 (2012).

  21. Effects of Radiofrequency Electro Magnetic Waves (RFEMW) From Cellular Phones on Human Ejaculated Semen: An In Vitro Pilot Study. Agarwal, A., et al. Fertil Steril 4:1318-1325 (2009). 

  22. Exposure to Magnetic fields and the Risk of Poor Sperm Quality. Li, Yan, et al. Journal of Reproductive Toxicology 29(1):86-92 (2009).

  23. Mobile Phone Radiation Induces Reactive Oxygen Species Production and DNA Damage in Human Spermatozoa In Vitro. Luliis, Newey, et al. PLoS ONE 4(7) (2009).

  24. Pathophysiology of Cell Phone Radiation: Oxidative Stress and Carcinogenesis with Focus on Male Reproductive System. Desai, N., Kesari, K., and Agarwal, A. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 7: 114 (2009).

  25. Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation (Rf-EMR) from GSM Mobile Phones Induces Oxidative Stress and Reduces Sperm Motility in Rats. Mailankot, Kunnath, et al. Clinical Science 64(6):561-5 (2009).

  26. Cell Phones: Modern Man's Nemesis? Makker, Varghese, et al. Reproductive BioMedicine Online 18(1):148-157 (2008).

  27. Indicative SAR Levels Due to an Active Mobile Phone in a Front Trouser Pocket in Proximity to Common Metallic Objects. Whittow, Panagamuwa, et al. Propagation Conference 149-152 (2008).

  28. Cell Phones and Male Infertility: Dissecting the Relationship. Deepinder, Makker, et al. Reproductive BioMedicine Online 15(3):266-270 (2007).

  29. Evaluation of the Effect of Using Mobile Phones on Male Fertility. Wdowiak, Wiktor, et al. Annals of Agricultural and Medicine14(1):169-172 (2007).

  30. Effect of Cell Phone Usage on Semen Analysis in Men Attending Infertility Clinic: An Observational Study. Agarwal, Deepinder, et al. American Society for Reproductive Medicine 89(1):124-8 (2008).

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